1. Knowing rules and restrictions of cold showering is very important for getting all benefits of this procedure. For example, "A cold shower could make the drunk person pass out or fall", as it is claimed by Harvard University Health Services. This effect takes place due to greatly improved perfusion of the brain, liver and other vital organs which can be overloaded with the negative effects of alcohol. Which other medical professionals investigate the effects and rules of taking cold shower?
Medical research suggested the following benefits of regular cold shower application:
- activation the sympathetic nervous system (Shevchuk, 2008)
- increase the blood level of beta-endorphin and noradrenaline and increase synaptic release of noradrenaline in the brain as well (Shevchuk, 2008)
- electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve endings to the brain, which could result in an anti-depressive effect (Shevchuk, 2008)
- significant analgesic effect without noticeable side effects or cause dependence (Shevchuk, 2008)
- reduction in muscle soreness after running a marathon (Liang et al, 2001)
- improved quality of sleep (Onen et al, 1994)
- decrease of uric acid level in blood plasma (Brenke et al, 1994)
- inhibition of purine metabolism (Brenke et al, 1994)
- long-term antioxidative adaptation (Brenke et al, 1994)
- improved tone of the skin and muscles (Mergeay et al, 1990)
- reduction in uremic pruritus (a major problem for patients with end-stage renal disease) (Zucker et al, 2003)
- increase in brown fat cells that protects from aging, fight obesity, diabetes, heart disease, etc.(Kanzleiter et al,2005; Mattson, 2010). All references and quotes are provided below.
Brown fat = special fat cells that have, unlike white fat cells, high concentrations of mitochondria and, therefore, able to generate heat without any muscular activity. Brown fat concentrations are very high in new-borns and infants, but gradually decline with aging due to absence of cold stimulation in the general population.
Medical research in relation to brown fat or brown adipose tissues is one of the top priorities in modern medical biochemistry and molecular biology, as potential treatment for obesity, diabetes and diseases of aging (see References and Abstracts for Brown Adipose Tissue Research - below on this page). While many doctors investigate how to increase brown fat concentrations in humans using medical drugs and transplantation, some natural doctors suggested the most natural way to increase our brown fat stores, cold showering.
2. Cold shower for better body oxygenation and breathing retraining
Dr. Buteyko and his MDs always viewed cold water adaptation (e.g., taking cold shower, cold water dowsing, bathing in snow, etc.) as an important part of the Buteyko method of breathing retraining. There are several known physiological processes that help us to achieve a better health state due to better adaptation to cold. (Note that this adaptation takes place only when the person follows certain rules.) Some of these beneficial processes are:
1. Cold showering favorably redistribute the blood in a way that is similar to effects of CO2 and NO on arteries and arterioles. Since cold water is applied on the surface of the body, the veins located near the surface constrict and the blood is pushed into arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Over two thirds of systemic resistance to blood flow in the cardiovascular system is in these blood vessels (arteries, arterioles and capillaries). Hence, this blood redistribution causes and leads to better perfusion (blood supply) of all tissues and organs and reduces heart rate. In this sense, application of cold water has some similarities with CO2 and NO effects on blood vessels.
2. Regular use of cold shower reduces heat losses (KP. Buteyko) and decreases core body temperature(Russian health nuts are preoccupied with having lower body temperature due to a wide-spread belief that just one degree reduction in core body temperature extends expected life span of humans by some decades.)
3. Cold water adaptation builds up brown fat cells that has a large concentration of mitochondria to generate heat without physical contraction or muscular movements.
4. A German study found positive effects of such body hardening on certain blood parameters.
“Whole-body cold stimuli lead to a dosage-depended decrease of uric acid level in blood plasma. This could be observed in own studies on winter-swimming and cold shower application and in studies on patients treated by cold-chamber-therapy. This uric acid decrease is due to an accelerated oxygen radical formation during cold exposition rather than to an inhibition of purine metabolism. The acute oxidative loading due to cold exposure and the long-term antioxidative adaptation may be interpreted as a new molecular mechanism resulting in body hardening” (Brenke et al, 1994).
5. Correct application of cold shower water (see Rule #3 below: gradual exposure) results in natural breath holding probably due to some reflexatory mechanism. Hence, taking, for example, cold shower results in all beneficial mechanisms and effects related to CO2 uses in the human body, including better oxygenation and perfusion of all vital organs, calmer mind, improved immunity, better sleep and digestion, and many others due to increased body oxygen content (DIY body oxygen test or the control pause) by about 2-3 s. In my view, application of cold shower has about the same effect on health and CP (control pause), although physiologically different, as one half of the typical Buteyko reduced breathing exercise session.
6. Most importantly, regular use of cold showers will help you to adapt to cold conditions and improve your morning CP due to improved thermoregulation and general adaptation to cold conditions provided that you challenge . This increase means better general health and well-being with improvements in all systems and organs of the human body.
3. Cold shower rules and RESTRICTIONS
The below rules and restrictions are based on clinical experience of 200 Russian doctors. They taught the Buteyko self-oxygenation breathing therapy to ten thousands of Russian patients. (This therapy is officially approved by the Russian Health Ministry). Taking cold showers is an integral part of the Buteyko breathing method. Why? Doctor Buteyko and his colleagues found that taking cold shower, when safe, increases oxygenation of the body and improves personal well-being.
For these reasons, all these doctors explained the main rules regarding water- and cold-tempering activities. When it is safe? Rule #1 is to have sufficient body oxygen stores. The patient should measure their own oxygen content using the stress-free breath holding time test: the CP (control pause) before taking cold shower. For this medical therapy, the CP is the key parameter of health. These Russian doctors tested many thousands of patients and discovered the following results since this test is the key parameter of health for the Buteyko technique.
Severely sick, terminally ill and hospitalized patients have from 1 to about 10 s CP. With approaching death, their breathing gets heavier (deeper and/or faster), while the CP approaches zero: 5, 4, 3, 2, and only 1 second of oxygen in the body just before the death. Over 90% of people die in conditions of severe overbreathing.
Sick patients with mild forms of the chronic disease (asthma, bronchitis, heart disease, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, cancer, etc.) have about 10-20 s CP. These patients are usually on medication to control their symptoms.
Asymptomatic asthmatics, heart patients with no symptoms and many others have slightly more than 20 s of oxygen in the body.
Healthy adults, according to published western results, should have about 40 s CP. This result corresponds to normal breathing pattern, but Doctor Buteyko found that 60 s CP is incompatible with about 150 chronic diseases or diseases of civilization (his norm corresponds to even slower breathing: about 4 L/min for minute ventilation and 8 breaths per minute for respiratory frequency at rest). Hence, he established 60 s as a standard of ideal health.
Rule #1, according to Russian doctors, is to have over 20 s of oxygen in the body when you take cold shower. If one’s oxygenation is less, the patient is likely to get an infection, fever, sore throat, blocked nose, and/or other negative symptoms. This is the key restriction for taking cold shower. (Note that if you have been taking it for months or years with less then 20 s CP, you could be able to continue to take it safely, but it is better if you increase your CP so that to enjoy better health and quality of life.)
Other rules are:
Rule #2. Start with warming up bones and deeper body tissues with warm water, if they got cold after prolonged cold exposure.
Rule #3. Very gradually change water temperature from warm to cold (or apply cold water to various body parts in sequence) so that transition to cold is very gradual (up to 40-60 s). If you use only cold water, apply cold water for one arm only. Then do the same with the other arm. After finishing both arms, apply cold water for one leg only. Then use cold water for the other leg. Finally, start with the lower trunk of the water and rise up to the shoulders, which are the most sensitive area.
Every time, when you take cold shower using this "slow" method, make sure and check that your breathing naturally becomes small and slow. Many healthy people even hold their breath naturally for some tens seconds.
Rule #4. Apply cold shower for about 30-60 s so that to cool down deep tissues of your body.
Rule #5. If you use contrast shower (cold-warm-cold-warm…), always finish with cold water.
Rule #6. Some Russian Buteyko MDs suggest that it is good to let water dry naturally without use of a towel. Others recommend vigorous rubbing with a towel until skin gets warm.
Warning. Note that you should not take cold shower immediately after too long and exhausting physical exercise, or when your blood glucose level is low, or soon after meals. Ideally, it should be done on empty stomach.
References for Cold Shower Benefits, Rules and RESTRICTIONS
Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(5):995-1001. Epub 2007 Nov 13.
Adapted cold shower as a potential treatment for depression.
Molecular Radiobiology Section, The Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, 401 College St, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.
Depression is a debilitating mood disorder that is among the top causes of isability worldwide. It can be characterized by a set of somatic, emotional, and behavioral symptoms, one of which is a high risk of suicide. This work presents a hypothesis that depression may be caused by the convergence of two factors: (A) A lifestyle that lacks certain physiological stressors that have been experienced by primates through millions of years of evolution, such as brief changes in body temperature (e.g. cold swim), and this lack of "thermal exercise" may cause inadequate functioning of the brain. (B) Genetic makeup that predisposes an
individual to be affected by the above condition more seriously than other people. To test the hypothesis, an approach to treating depression is proposed that consists of adapted cold showers (20 degrees C, 2-3 min, preceded by a 5-min gradual adaptation to make the procedure less shocking) performed once or twice
daily. The proposed duration of treatment is several weeks to several months. The following evidence appears to support the hypothesis: Exposure to cold is known to activate the sympathetic nervous system and increase the blood level of beta-endorphin and noradrenaline and to increase synaptic release of noradrenaline in the brain as well. Additionally, due to the high density of cold receptors in the skin, a cold shower is expected to send an overwhelming amount of electrical impulses from peripheral nerve endings to the brain, which could result in an anti-depressive effect. Practical testing by a statistically insignificant number of people, who did not have sufficient symptoms to be diagnosed with depression, showed that the cold hydrotherapy can relieve depressive symptoms rather effectively.The therapy was also found to have a significant analgesic effect and it does not appear to have noticeable side effects or cause dependence. In conclusion, wider and more rigorous studies would
be needed to test the validity of the hypothesis.